The modern region of Limousin is essentially composed of two historical French provinces:
- Limousin: the department of Corrèze in its entirety and the central and southeastern part of Haute-Vienne. The entire old province of Limousin is contained within the modern Limousin.
- Marche: most of the department of Creuse and the north of Haute-Vienne. The old province of Marche is almost entirely contained within the modern region of Limousin, with only a small part of Marche now belonging to the region of Centre.
Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is also composed of small parts of other former provinces:
- Angoumois: extreme south-west of Haute-Vienne
- Poitou: extreme west of Haute-Vienne
- Auvergne: extreme east of Creuse
- Berry: extreme north of Creuse
Today the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region.