2016, it is part of the new region Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées. It comprises five departments, and borders the other French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, andSpain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other side. It is the southernmost region of mainland France.
The name of the province of Languedoc originates from the language spoken in southern France, langue d’oc, also known as Occitan, andRoussillon, a historic province in the South of present-day Languedoc-Roussillon.
The region is made up of the following historical provinces:
- 68.7% of Languedoc-Roussillon was formerly part the province of Languedoc: the departments of Hérault,Gard, Aude, the extreme south and extreme east of Lozère, and the extreme north of Pyrénées-Orientales. The former province of Languedoc also extends over what is now the Midi-Pyrénées region, including the old capital of Languedoc Toulouse.
- 17.9% of Languedoc-Roussillon was formerly the province of Gévaudan, now the department of Lozère. A small part of the former Gévaudan lies inside the current Auvergne region. Gévaudan is often considered to be a sub-province inside the province of Languedoc, in which case Languedoc would account for 86.6% of Languedoc-Roussillon.
- 13.4% of Languedoc-Roussillon, located in the southernmost part of the region, is a collection of five historicalCatalan pays, from east to west: Roussillon, Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir, and Cerdagne, all of which are now part of the department of Pyrénées-Orientales. These pays were part of the Ancien Régime province of Roussillon, owning its name to the largest and most populous of the five pays, Roussillon. “Province of Roussillon and adjacent lands of Cerdagne” was indeed the name that was officially used after the area became French in 1659, based on the historical division of the five pays between the county of Roussillon (Roussillon and Vallespir) and the county of Cerdagne (Cerdagne, Capcir, and Conflent).
Llívia is a town of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain, that forms a Spanish exclave surrounded by French territory (department of Pyrénées-Orientales).